Sunday, March 31, 2013

NASA hiding the DEFINITIVE proof of intelligent life on Mars!!!

>
    I cracked the codes of N.A.S.A. archives and got the proof, the definitive proof of intelligent life on Mars!!! There's plenty of it!!! Exclusive for you, the shocking images, here just one of them:
   
Above image - the exceptional and definitive document on intelligent life on Mars.  

*   *   *

    Surprise!!!!... This is only an April Fools' Day joke! [see References], there aren't "definitive" proofs of intelligent life on Mars, but only intelligences like me who builds hoaxes! Don't you see the "select-copy-and-paste" collage? I entitled it ''GO and destroy the Bible!''.... 
     How please?.... "Today is not the first April, the date of the post is 31st March!!"... Uh, what do you think? Do you really think NASA (or Chinese, or Russians, etc.) will discover definitive proofs of "intelligent life" in the outer space exactly on the... April Fools' Day??! Hardly! No one would believe it and everyone would immediately think to.... April Fools' Day! Therefore I too revealed the "definitive proof" of intelligent life on Mars not on the same April Fools' Day! I'm no stupid, I know you'll have immediately suspected the hoax!

---------------REFERENCES:

Above image - the theatrical release poster: "Would you be shocked to find out that the recent moment of our recent history may not have happened at all? "

URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Capricorn_one.jpg

Capricorn One

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


"....Capricorn One is a 1978 science fiction thriller movie about a Mars landing hoax. It was written and directed by Peter Hyams and produced by Lew Grade's ITC Entertainment. It stars Elliott Gould with James Brolin, Sam Waterston and O. J. Simpson as the astronauts.
Although Capricorn One is thematically a typical 1970s government-conspiracy thriller with similarities to Hyams's subsequent film Outland, the story was inspired by conspiracy theories surrounding the Apollo Moon landings....".

Friday, March 29, 2013

"To boast".

>

 Ephesians 2:8-9

For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:
Not of works, lest any man should boast:


Above image - "....Pope washes feet of young Muslim woman prisoner in unprecedented twist on Maundy Thursday

Pope Francis continued his gleeful abandonment of tradition by washing the feet of a young Muslim woman prisoner in an unprecedented twist on the Holy Thursday tradition......."

URL: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/the-pope/9960168/Pope-washes-feet-of-young-Muslim-woman-prisoner-in-unprecedented-twist-on-Maundy-Thursday.html

Sacrificed for EUROGENDFOR?

>
Why Grillo's Five Star Movement 
doesn't question the existence of 
EUROGENDFOR???...
.......





 




"...Therefore, Mr. President we reiterate that we are totally dissatisfied with the justification provided for this tragic event, and we ask that the Ministers present to report in detail and with clarity what happened from 15 February 2012 to the present. We're not asking for a favor, transparency and 'your duty towards your employer, the Italian people, the same people that will handsomely reward in return for carelessness and superficiality....."

URL: http://www.roma5stelle.com/forum/forum-generale-altri-argomenti/96410-intervento-di-di-battista-alla-camera

and reported in: http://www.luogocomune.net/site/modules/news/article.php?storyid=4211

        Beppe Grillo's Movement 5 Stars and EUROGENDFOR:


     Above image - an example: Italo Gozzoli sending to the movement politburo proposals for abolition of the EUROGENDFOR treaty. This month. Answers? - URL: http://www.beppegrillo.it/cgi-bin/mt-4/mt-cp.cgi?__mode=view&id=20507&blog_id=9

 *   *   *  


Thursday, March 21, 2013

Fausto Biloslavo, a confession? 

http://vaticancrusadebalkans.blogspot.it/2013/03/fausto-biloslavo-confession_2778.html

    

    



    Above images - from top: princess Mafalda of Savoy, then the flight team of Frecce Tricolori in 1988, then Fondazione Stensen page screenshot, and last Corrado Augias, anchorman of RAI3 television channel.
   The central pic is the flight team, caption: "The flight group "Frecce Tricolori 88". Signed with crosses Naldini, Nutarelli and Alessio, the three pilots murdered in the crash at Raimstein arishow 1988. Remember that in 44 bC there it was born the Roman Empire, and the 'bible' of the Roman Empire is based only on 44 manuscripts of Alessandria. Remember also the princess Mafalda of Savoy who died in consequence of wounds for an Allied bombing of Dachau KL where she was detained. She died exactly on the same day of the Ramstein massacre, but 44 years before [English Wikipedia says "27" August]. And I remember a friend of the Jesuit order, Corrado Augias (host of Jesuit foundation Fondazione Stensen), and his talk show the year 2008 (or 2009), on 27th June,  the 28th (or 29th) anniversary of Ustica Massacre when  Naldini and Nutarelli were technical witnesses of what happened to the DC9 when they were on board of their Lockheed TF104G. Of course the talk show with Corrado Augias started on 21:05, practically the hour when DC9 Itavia was shot down. The talk show was centered on the figure and the tragic destiny of  Mafalda of Savoy.....

Saturday, August 18, 2012

Not "Großdeutsche" but "Yugoslav Lösung"? Under the control of EUROGENDFOR? 

http://avlesbeluskesexposed.blogspot.it/2012/08/not-grodeutsche-but-yugoslav-losung.html

Related:

Thursday, March 28, 2013


Mussolini's Jesuitical revenge? 

http://avles-theamberpath.blogspot.it/2013/03/mussolinis-jesuitical-revenge.html

Wednesday, March 27, 2013

"Before your eyes": why not in Switzerland?

>

 "....Another economic institution was founded, the "Opera Religiosa" ("religious work"), the Vatican bank. It works with the Swiss Kreditanstalt of Zurich, of which the Jesuits should own shares. An employee of Kreditanstalt is always present in the rooms of Opera Religiosa in Rome....."

[der Spiegel/L'Espresso, 1958 - see References]

 







Above image - from BusinessDayCyprus faces years of suffering, with uncertain future in the euro zone: analysts 
Read more: http://www.smh.com.au/business/world-business/cyprus-faces-years-of-suffering-with-uncertain-future-in-the-euro-zone-analysts-20130326-2gqtl.html#ixzz2OkXmP4xn






Above image - ""Before our very eyes" The Cypriot Pawn - by Thierry Meyssan" - URL: http://www.voltairenet.org/article177971.html



"..... With the help of the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, US comprador Christine Lagarde, the American leadership challenged the inviolability of private property in the European Union and attempted to confiscate a tenth of bank deposits, supposedly to bail out the Cypriot national bank affected by the Greek crisis....." [from the Thierry Meyssan's article]

     So Cyprus. But why the "US compradors" don't attack Switzerland?



".....Vatican banking, however, is not confined to Italy.
Funds managed by the Vatican's Prefecture of Economic
Affairs are deposited in numerous non-Italian banks.
Some are in America, and many are in Switzerland, where
the Vatican maintains its funds in numbered accounts.
Nobody really knows how much money the Vatican has
in Swiss vaults
. But it is known that one reason why the
Vatican likes to bank in Switzerland is because the Swiss
franc can provide protection against inflation and devaluation
of money in other countries
. Since 1945, there have
been more than 170 currency devaluations all over the
world—twelve of them in Brazil alone. Unlike the American
dollar or the British pound, which have substantially
less than 50 percent backing in gold reserves, the Swiss
franc is guaranteed up to 130 percent by gold
. So, because
Switzerland's money is "hard money," the Vatican holds

the francs and exchanges them for the legal tender of
another country when needed
.


The Vatican also uses its Swiss accounts to maintain
its anonymity when gaining control of foreign corporations.
Swiss banks, unlike American banks, can act as
stockbrokers; they hold large numbers of shares belonging
to clients but not in the clients' names. The Vatican,
like any other depositor, can have a Swiss bank buy shares
in a company in the bank's name and can thus obtain
control of the company in full anonymity.
The "Gnomes
of Zurich"—a pet name pinned on Swiss banking officials
by the British—point out, however, that the total
number of shares their banks hold in U.S. companies is
less than 1 percent of America's outstanding stock
. Any
speculation about how much the Vatican may have silently
invested in the U.S. economy, at least at the corporation
level, must take this figure into account.
Since Helvetian banking practices are based on secrecy,
a style to which Vatican financiers are indeed no strangers,
the Vatican and I.R.I., acting as major shareholders, operate
the Banque de Rome Suisse, a Swiss offshoot of the
Banco di Roma. This bank lists a $15.2 million capital
stock; subject to Swiss laws, it keeps the names of its depositors
clad in the impenetrable armor of legality........"
[From "The Vatican Empire" of Nino lo Bello, year 1970 - see link below]


     "....the total number of shares their banks hold in U.S. companies is
less than 1 percent of America's outstanding stock......."
we can put also some doubts on this, as with the game of controlled subsidiaries it is possible to occult larger shares. In fact the Gnomes of the tales are known to be very playful beings. Probably their cousins of Switzerland too.



"....Banking in Switzerland is regulated by the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority (FINMA), which derives its authority from a series of federal statutes. The country's tradition of bank secrecy, which dates to the Middle Ages, was first codified in a 1934 law.

URL:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_Switzerland
     

     Yeah, you understood right, Switzerland is not in the EU, meanwhile Cyprus is in the EU. Of course the Swiss guards of the pope come not from Cyprus, and the financial basis of the Vatican and the Jesuit order where to protect their fabulous wealth is in a not EU country, because the hunter is not so cretin to store his cattle in the same woods where he hunts the game.

    Switzerland is every day covered by the "spectacle of the world", a spectacle which the 'alternative' information of the pope is throwing in your eyes:


 "....Only in March 1945 they decided to add a special realistic effect to their phantastic comedy, blocking the financial transaction of the Third Reich as “…the pressure of the U.S. government was no more avoidable by the Swiss !...”. Wow! What a panic! In fact the past dealings of the BIS with the Nazis (BIS IS a Nazi bank…), vanished to re-appear only in the 90ies….”.


 Sunday, July 20, 2008

JESUIT TRAINED MARIO DRAGHI PUSHES TO STRENGTHEN THE ROLE OF THE WORLD CENTRAL BANKING SYSTEM 

http://avlesbeluskesexposed.blogspot.it/2008/07/jesuit-trained-mario-draghi-pushes-to.html

And: 





 Monday, March 25, 2013

Nino Lo Bello's "L'Oro del Vaticano" ["The Gold of the Vatican"] 

 http://avlesbeluskesexposed.blogspot.it/2013/03/nino-lo-bellos-loro-del-vaticano.html


-----------REFERENCES: 

     The publishing house "Il Borghese" who published the Italian edition of Nino lo Bello's book "The Vatican empire"/"L'Oro del Vaticano", was owned by Mario Tedeschi, a Fascist, monarchic idealist with Jewish ancestry. As you can see from Wikipedia he was involved with P2 and  with Italian and US intelligence in the operation "Manifesti Cinesi" [false posters with false Communist/Stalinist signature in order to arise fear of Communism and divide the radical left movement in Italy in the sixties]. But probably just for this reason we can assign to the information of the book of the Italian-American lo Bello an high rate of credibility, as the personal history of the Italian publisher and maybe collaborant Mario Tedeschi shows not only the typical anti-Communism of the cold war years, but also a clear enmity with the Vatican which reveals to us many hidden dynamics of domain pursued by the Jesuit order. 

-------------------------------------
 "... An employee of Kreditanstalt is always present in the rooms of Opera Religiosa in Rome.....":
  

Thursday, October 11, 2012

Vatican/Jesuit control of the world economy – end of the summary [der Spiegel-L'Espresso 1958]  


 http://avlesbeluskesexposed.blogspot.it/2012/10/vaticanjesuit-control-of-world-economy_11.html

 

Monday, March 25, 2013

Nino Lo Bello's "L'Oro del Vaticano" ["The Gold of the Vatican"]

 >




"The author of this book foresees that the day will come, maybe in a thousand years, in which the Vatican will cease to function as a religious institution and take in everything and for all the functions of a large financial undertaking. The transition from one to another form will be less difficult than it might seem, because as Catholicism will accentuate its decline as a great religion, the wealth of the Church will be able to more easily infiltrate any area of the world economy. Then, finally, the magnate installed beyond the Tiber can get rid of his garment of piety, then, finally, the Vatican will reveal the true extent of its economic interests."

[from page 186 of the English version of "L'Oro del Vaticano"]


     Above there's an excerpt from the book "L'oro del Vaticano", or "The gold of the Vatican" by Nino Lo Bello [scroll down to find the link for an English translated version e-book].

     The book was published in 1971 and it seems natural that today the work of Nino lo Bello is almost completely forgotten:




Presented by nwo-truthresearch blog in [Italian version]:


 domenica 24 marzo 2013


Nino lo Bello: L'Oro del Vaticano 

Nino lo Bello: The Gold of the Vatican

http://nwo-truthresearch.blogspot.it/2013/03/forsela-constatazione-piu-amara-e.html

 

 "I shall never forget the first time I stood in a Vatican City bank and watched the tellers at work, dealing with nuns, Jesuits, missionaries, and bishops. During a quiet moment I said to one of the tellers, "I guess some of your clients, being of the religious calling, don't know very much about money."
The young man had the correct answer for this display of naivete. "Sir," he said with adding-machine accuracy, "it is my experience that everybody knows a lot about money."

......(......).......

Pius XI was speaking of another world, in another period, yet his words have meaning when applied to the Vatican empire as it exists today. Thanks to his successors (Pius XII, John XXIII, and Paul VI) and their financial
guardians, who subscribe to the theory that what's good for General Motors is also good for the Vatican, the Church is now big business........."

       Here a page from where you can download the English translation:

 The Vatican Empire

 http://www.ebook3000.com/The-Vatican-Empire_35447.html


 See also: 




Monday, January 14, 2013



The religious theological roots of the actual economic and financial crisis [a summary by links] 

http://avlesbeluskesexposed.blogspot.it/2013/01/the-religious-theological-roots-of.html


---------------ADVERTISEMENT: 

      Yes, a new blog, but I'll not post anything on it, it is only an artistic idea, "how it would appear a blog" if I had started it today:




Planet of the Jesuits 
 

Saturday, March 23, 2013

The Emperor's thumb: bye bye Chavez [and Tyndale].

>

Above image - (remember, I continue to put captions as "Above image" because here the images disappears very easily); "Lord open the king of England's eyes - with Emperor's thumb" - constructivist surrealist  post-Ratzinger collage.  Location: Planet of the Jesuits. Year: 2013.



Above image - "puppets". URL: http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/14199303-president-of-belarus-cried-at-the-funeral-of-hugo-chavez
  
*   *   *


".....'The white smoke over the Falklands was pretty clear': David Cameron REBUKES new Pope over Argentina's claim to islands

  • Cameron urged world leaders to respect the 99.8 percent vote
  • But Argentine President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner describes voters as 'squatters'
  • Previously said the islands were 'Argentinian soil'  'usurped' by Britain
  • Kirchner has already asked the Pope to take a message to world powers


By Daniel Martin
|
David Cameron clashed with the new Pope yesterday over his claims that the Falkland Islands had been ‘usurped’ by the British.
Pope Francis, the former Cardinal of Buenos Aires, believes the South Atlantic territories are ‘Argentine soil’.
But the Prime Minister said yesterday that he ‘respectfully’ disagreed with him and called on him to accept the result of the recent Falklands referendum.

   A predictive programming declaration of the  Theology of Liberation's leader, the Sandinista priest D'Escoto about the Falkland War but having in mind the incoming Argentina pope??!...... -  this video with an anti-Britain charge is about nine months ago:


Above video - "Nicaragua's Father Miguel D'Escoto: Colonialist David Cameron should not be taken seriously" - "
Published on Jun 18, 2012

Father Miguel D'Escoto, advisor to Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega, former Foreign Minister and President of the UN General Assembly, was also appointed last year by martyred leader Muammar Gaddafi, to represent the Libyan Arab Socialist Jamahiriyah in the United Nations after their Ambassador to the UN was criminally denied a visa by the US to attend the General Assembly in New York. Father Miguel D'Escoto was also subsequently denied the appropriate visa, in a clear display of imperialism's refusal to allow the sovereign nation of Libya representation through diplomatic channels.

Here Telesur interviews Father Miguel D'Escoto about Las Malvinas which Argentina and the Latin American continent is still struggling to liberate from British colonialism."


URL: http://youtu.be/Th0XUUIN-3M

The key? See the historical/epochal Douglas Willinger's...:


 Sunday, June 15, 2008

A Buried Standard 

 http://continuingcounterreformation.blogspot.it/2008/06/buried-standard.html

 


    Definitively Chavez was wiped off the scene in order to let the stage free only for the new charismatic leader of the Roman Catholicism - Jesuit soldier of the Counter Reformation Francis:


Wednesday, March 20, 2013



Feeling of March. 

 http://avlesbeluskesexposed.blogspot.it/2013/03/feeling-of-march.html


    Therefore all this (see below link) has a reason of existence. Precisely  to push away the suspect that Jesuits are the true mastermind and religious/political beneficiaries of the Theology of Liberation and Communism in Latin America:
 

"......BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA -- While the media is flooded with hypocritical articles praising the so-called work of Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio — now Pope Francis — with the poor, Democracy Now has just exposed an alarming video of Horacio Verbitsky's information on Jorge Bergoglio. Horacio Verbitsky is a leading Argentine journalist  who exposed Francis’ connection to the abduction of two Jesuit priests. He is the author of "El Silencio" [Spanish for "The Silence"].....".
URL:  http://www.vaticancrimes.us/2013/03/horacio-verbitsky-exposes-pope-francis.html

.....otherwise, being CIA a traditional bulwark of the Jesuits' pupils, ......:



Saturday, March 16, 2013



New pope of C.I.A.: Jesuit-trained. 

 http://avlesbeluskesexposed.blogspot.it/2013/03/new-pope-of-cia-jesuit-trained.html

...........you then cannot sell CIA as "enemy of Theology of Liberation".

     See the ambassador of USA in Slovenia, Joseph Mussomeli , who openly sided the center-right political fraction, arising the protests from the center-left opposition and even of the once president of Slovenia, the leftist former Communist functionary in former Tito's Yugoslavia) DaniloTurk.  
     Mussomeli is strictly linked with the Jesuits and with the soul of the Theology of Liberation, the Maryknolls:



Sunday, March 10, 2013

Bringing Liberation Theology in Slovenia [an Ultramontante experiment ] 

http://adrgegenreformationheute.blogspot.it/2013/03/bringing-liberation-theology-in.html

    

    Jesuit pope Francis, a long awaited revenge against the homeland of Tyndale:

Monday, April 18, 2011


RCC to Take Credit for 1611 KJV Bible 

URL:  http://continuingcounterreformation.blogspot.it/2011/04/rcc-to-take-credit-for-1611-kjv-bible.html


Defining Tyndale as a Roman Catholic without mentioning his role or fate

FRIDAY CHURCH NEWS NOTES

April 8, 2011 Volume 12, Issue 14

USA TODAY SAYS CATHOLIC CHURCH HAD SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN THE KJV (Friday Church News Notes, April 8, 2011, www.wayoflife.org fbns@wayoflife.org, 866-295-4143)

http://www.wayoflife.org/files/82665d83021d7ff8a5dd3c3b19acba44-772.html
- A USA Today report on a traveling Bible exhibit makes the amazing claim that the Roman Catholic Church had a significant role in the King James Bible. The exhibit, called Passages, is set to open at the Vatican in October. “The announcement was made at the Vatican Embassy to highlight the Catholic contribution to the best-loved English text, the 1611 KJV, which draws about 80% of its majestic language from an earlier translation by a Catholic priest” (“New Museum to Use Science to Tell Bible’s History,” USA Today, April 8, 2011). What the reporter forgot to mention was Rome’s most significant role in that project, which was burning that “Catholic priest” in a public spectacle in Vilvoorde, Belgium. The “priest” in question was William Tyndale, who published the first printed English Bible and the first English Bible translated directly from Greek and Hebrew. Though he was an ordained Catholic priest, he renounced the Roman Catholic Church and its heresies and called the pope the Antichrist. In The Practice of Prelates, Tyndale likened the pope to an ivy which climbs up a tree and gradually saps the strength of the host and kills it, emphasizing that this is what the pope had done to England and every other nation under the papal thumb. Tyndale called Roman Catholicism “a nest for unclean birds.” Tyndale also brazenly disobeyed Rome’s law that forbade the translation of the Bible into the common languages of the people without ecclesiastical permission. When the Tyndale New Testament was smuggled into England (because the Roman Catholic authorities there forbade its distribution) large quantities were confiscated and burned, beginning in 1526. By 1528, the prisons were filled with those who had committed the “crime” of reading the New Testament in English, and in 1529 Thomas Hitton became the first in a long line of believers who were burned at the stake for possessing the Tyndale Bible. (Others had previously been burned for possessing the Wycliffe Bible.) In May 1535, Tyndale was arrested for his “heresies” and for his audacity at thumbing his nose at papal laws. After being imprisoned for nearly a year and a half in a cold, dreary dungeon in the castle at Vilvoorde, William Tyndale was taken out to the public square, strangled, and his body burned. Roman Catholic authorities also burned John Rogers, the translator of the Matthew’s Bible, another Bible in the lineage of the 1611 King James. Further, the Geneva Bible, which was the most popular English Bible before the KJV, was produced in Geneva, Switzerland, instead of England for the simple reason that the Roman Catholic Queen Mary was pouring out such vicious persecution upon Bible believers that many fled to Geneva for safety. And going back before Tyndale to the first English Bible, let’s not forget that the Roman Catholic Church condemned John Wycliffe of “heresy” for translating the English Bible and so hated his memory that they dug up his bones and burned them nearly 44 years after his death. Yes, the Roman Catholic Church did have a major role in the English Bibles preceding the King James, and let’s not forget it!


1 comment:

LVB said...
Awesome work, Douglas.

This is just nauseating, but critical to bring it out into the light of truth.

Thank you.


Wednesday, March 20, 2013

Feeling of March.

>



Just a feeling:


5th March Ugo Chavez dies.

13th March Jorge Mario Bergoglio SJ elected pope.
15th March, the Ides of March.

 2013 March, or: 5 plus 15 and 13 March?



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Tuesday, March 19, 2013

Jesuit Extreme Oath of Induction and Chavez 

 http://avlesbeluskesexposed.blogspot.it/2013/03/jesuit-extreme-oath-of-induction-and.html

---------------------REFERENCES:

 Ides of March

URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ides_of_march

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Ides of march)
Jump to: navigation, search

The Death of Caesar (1798) by Vincenzo Camuccini
The Ides of March (Latin: Idus Martii or Idus Martiae) is a day on the Roman calendar that corresponds to March 15. It was marked by several religious observances, and became notorious as the date of the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC. The death of Caesar made the Ides of March a turning point in Roman history, as one of the events that marked the transition from the historical period known as the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire.[1]
Although March (Martius) was the third month of the Julian calendar, in the oldest Roman calendar it had been the first month of the year. The holidays observed by the Romans from the first through the Ides often reflect their origin as new year celebrations.

Contents

Ides

The Romans did not number days of a month sequentially from the first through the last day. Instead, they counted back from three fixed points of the month: the Nones (5th or 7th, depending on the length of the month), the Ides (13th or 15th), and the Kalends (1st) of the following month. The Ides occurred near the midpoint, on the 13th for most months, but on the 15th for March, May, July, and October. The Ides were supposed to be determined by the full moon, reflecting the lunar origin of the Roman calendar. On the earliest calendar, the Ides of March would have been the first full moon of the new year.[2]

Religious observances


Panel thought to depict the Mamuralia, from a mosaic of the months in which March is positioned at the beginning of the year (first half of the 3rd century AD, from El Djem, Tunisia, in Roman Africa)
The Ides of each month was sacred to Jupiter, the supreme deity of the Romans. The Flamen Dialis, Jupiter's high priest, led the "Ides sheep" (ovis Idulius) in procession along the Via Sacra to the arx, where it was sacrificed.[3]
In addition to the monthly sacrifice, the Ides of March was also the occasion of the Feast of Anna Perenna, a goddess of the year (Latin annus) whose festival originally concluded the ceremonies of the new year. The day was enthusiastically celebrated among the common people with picnics, drinking, and revelry.[4] One source from late antiquity also places the Mamuralia on the Ides of March.[5] This observance, which has aspects of scapegoat or ancient Greek pharmakos ritual, involved beating an old man dressed in animal skins and perhaps driving him from the city. The ritual may have been a new year festival representing the expulsion of the old year.[6]
In the later Imperial period, the Ides began a "holy week" of festivals[7] for Cybele and Attis. The Ides was the day of Canna intrat ("The Reed enters"), when Attis was born and exposed as an infant among the reeds of a Phrygian river.[8] He was discovered—depending on the version of the myth—by either shepherds or the goddess Cybele, who was also known as the Magna Mater, "Great Mother".[9] A week later, on March 22, the day of Arbor intrat ("The Tree enters") commemorated the death of Attis under a pine tree. A college of priests called "tree bearers" (dendrophoroi) cut down a tree,[10] suspended from it an image of Attis,[11] and carried it to the temple of the Magna Mater with lamentations. The day was formalized as part of the official Roman calendar under Claudius.[12] A three-day period of mourning followed,[13] culminating with the rebirth of Attis on March 25, the date of the vernal equinox on the Julian calendar.[14]

Assassination of Caesar


Reverse side of a coin issued by Caesar's assassin Brutus in the fall of 42 BC, with the abbreviation EID MAR (Ides of March) under a "cap of freedom" between two daggers
In modern times, the Ides of March is best known as the date on which Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC. Caesar was stabbed to death at a meeting of the senate. As many as 60 conspirators, led by Brutus and Cassius, were involved. According to Plutarch,[15] a seer had warned that harm would come to Caesar no later than the Ides of March. On his way to the Theatre of Pompey, where he would be assassinated, Caesar passed the seer and joked, "The ides of March have come," meaning to say that the prophecy had not been fulfilled, to which the seer replied "Aye, Caesar; but not gone."[15] This meeting is famously dramatised in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar, when Caesar is warned by the soothsayer to "beware the Ides of March."[16][17] The Roman biographer Suetonius[18] identifies the "seer" as a haruspex named Spurinna.
Caesar's death was a closing event in the crisis of the Roman Republic, and triggered the civil war that would result in the rise to sole power of his adopted heir Octavian (later known as Augustus).[19] Writing under Augustus, Ovid portrays the murder as a sacrilege, since Caesar was also the Pontifex Maximus of Rome and a priest of Vesta.[20] On the anniversary of Caesar's death in 40 BC, after achieving a victory at the siege of Perugia, Octavian executed 300 senators and knights who had fought against him under Lucius Antonius, the brother of Mark Antony.[21] The executions were one of a series of actions taken by Octavian to avenge Caesar's death. Suetonius[22] and the historian Cassius Dio[23] characterise the slaughter as like a religious sacrifice, noting that it occurred on the Ides of March at the new altar to the deified Julius.

References

  1. ^ "Forum in Rome" entry in Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome (Oxford University Press, 2010), p. 215.
  2. ^ H.H. Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic (Cornell University Press, 1981), pp. 42–43.
  3. ^ Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic, p. 43.
  4. ^ Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic, p. 90.
  5. ^ John Lydus (6th century), De mensibus4.36. Other sources place it on March 14.
  6. ^ Michele Renee Salzman, On Roman Time: The Codex-Calendar of 354 and the Rhythms of Urban Life in Late Antiquity (University of California Press, 1990), pp. 124 and 128–129; William Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic (London, 1908), pp. 44–50.
  7. ^ Maria Grazia Lancellotti, Attis, Between Myth and History: King, Priest, and God (Brill, 2002), p. 81; Bertrand Lançon, Rome in Late Antiquity (Routledge, 2001), p. 91; Philippe Borgeaud, Mother of the Gods: From Cybele to the Virgin Mary, translated by Lysa Hochroth (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004), pp. 51, 90, 123, 164.
  8. ^ Gary Forsythe, Time in Roman Religion: One Thousand Years of Religious History (Routledge, 2012), p. 88; Lancellotti, Attis, Between Myth and History, p. 81.
  9. ^ Michele Renee Salzman, On Roman Time: The Codex Calendar of 354 and the Rhythms of Urban Life in Late Antiquity (University of California Press, 1990), p. 166.
  10. ^ Jaime Alvar, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis and Mithras, translated by Richard Gordon (Brill, 2008), p. 288–289.
  11. ^ Firmicus Maternus, De errore profanarum religionum, 27.1; Rabun Taylor, "Roman Oscilla: An Assessment", RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics 48 (Autumn 2005), p. 97.
  12. ^ Lydus, De Mensibus 4.59; Suetonius, Otho 8.3; Forsythe, Time in Roman Religion, p. 88.
  13. ^ Forsythe, Time in Roman Religion, p. 88.
  14. ^ Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.21.10; Forsythe, Time in Roman Religion, p. 88; Salzman, On Roman Time, p. 168..
  15. ^ a b Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Caesar 63
  16. ^ "William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act 1, Scene II". The Literature Network. Jalic, Inc. 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
  17. ^ "William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act 3, Scene I". The Literature Network. Jalic, Inc. 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
  18. ^ Suetonius, Divus Julius 81.
  19. ^ "Forum in Rome," Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, p. 215.
  20. ^ Ovid, Fasti 3.697–710; A.M. Keith, entry on "Ovid," Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, p. 128; Geraldine Herbert-Brown, Ovid and the Fasti: An Historical Study (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), p. 70.
  21. ^ Melissa Barden Dowling, Clemency and Cruelty in the Roman World (University of Michigan Press, 2006), pp. 50–51; Arthur Keaveney, The Army in the Roman Revolution (Routledge, 2007), p. 15.
  22. ^ Suetonius, Life of Augustus 15.
  23. ^ Cassius Dio 48.14.2.

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